Research

The following list is a short bibliography of publications of interest in bioimpedance.

Published in Milwaukee Magazine as first of top 10 medical breakthroughs in Milwaukee Wisconsin - Feb 2013

380 patients enrolled for EPET I and 50 patients enrolled for EPET II.

Received approval from Western IRB for a Feasibility Study of the FastPath™ probe in the surgical wound, study to be conducted in 2nd Quarter of 2014.

Received approval for a continuation of the ex vivo breast tissue study from Western IRB.

Early testing of the FastPath™ probe for use during Moh’s skin cancer surgery shows promise, will be investigated further.

Manuscript of results to date on Electrical Anomaly Mammogram currently under peer review for publication in a scientific journal.

As of July, 2013, we now have ISO ‘approved for human use’ surgical probes necessary to obtain an EU CE mark.


Gregory W D, Marx J J, Gregory C W, Mikkelson W M, Tjoe J A, Shell J, (2012) “The Cole relaxation frequency as a parameter to identify cancer in breast tissue”, Med. Phys. 39(7), 4167-4174.

Gregory C W (2005), “The use of charge-charge correlation in impedance measurements: a test of the EPET method”, PhD Dissertation, College of Engineering and Mineral Resources, West Virginia University (Morgantown, WV)

Gregory W D and Gregory C W, (2000), “Electrical Property Enhanced Tomography”, Eng. In Med. and Bio. Proceedings of the 22d International Conference of IEEE, 4, 2632-2635

Gregory W D, Gregory C W, (May 2008), “Quantitative Diagnostics replacing Subjective Observations”, Technical Report, NovaScan LLC, 1-10

Gregory W D, Gregory C W, Voith P, and Kroeger S, (Feb 2006) “Device for Improved Cancer Detection: Computer Model and Experimental Test with Phantoms”, Technical Report NovaScan LLC, 1-15.

Gregory W D, McRae D A, Gregory C W, (1997), “Electrical property tomography using the correlation of exterior-to-interior induced currents”, J. of the Int. Fed. For Med. & Bio. Engineering 35, Supplement, part 1, 325.

Stoneman M R, Florescu M, Fox M P, Gregory W D, Hudetz A, Raicu V, (2009), “Non-Debye dielectric behavior and near-field interactions in biological tissues: when structure meets function”, Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, as part of the special issue covering work presented at the Fifth International Conference on Broadband Dielectric Spectroscopy and its Applications, held in Lyon, in August 2008.

Stoneman M R, Kosempa M, Gregory W D, Gregory C W, Marx J J, Mikkelson W, Tjoe J A, Raicu V., (2007), “Correction of electrode polarization contributions to the dielectric properties of normal and cancerous breast tissues at audio/radiofrequencies”, Physics in medicine and biology, 52(22), 6589-­6604.

Stoneman et al (2007), op cit

Barber D C, ( 1996), Project Leader, European Concerted Action on Electrical Impedance Tomography (CAIT), “Preface, Electrical Impedance Tomography”, Physiological Measurement, 17, Supplement 4A

Cole K S (1940), “Permeability and impermeability of cell membranes for ions,” Proc. Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol., 8, 110–122.

Gabriel C, Gabriel S, and Corthout E., (1996), “The dielectric properties of biological tissues: I- Literature survey” Phys. Med. Biol. 41, 2231-2249.

Gabriel C., (2007), “Tissue equivalent material for hand phantoms”, Phys. Med. Biol. 52, 4205-4210.

Glidewell M., and Ng K T, (1995), “Anatomically constrained electrical impedance tomography for anisotropic bodies via a two-step approach”, IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging, 4, no. 3, pp 498-­503.

Fricke H, Morse S (1926), “The electric capacity of tumors of the breast” J Cancer Res 10, pp 340-76.

Hagness S C, Lazebnik M, Popovic D, McCartney L, Watkins C B, Lindstrom M J, HarterLazebnik M., McCartney L., Popovic D., Watkins C.B., Lindstrom M.J., Harter J.,Sewall S., Magliocco A., Booske J.H., Okoniewski M. and Hagness S.C., (2007), “A large-scale study of the ultrawideband microwave dielectric properties of normal breast tissue obtained from reduction surgeries”, IOP PUBLISHING, Phys. Med. Biol., 52, 2637–2656.

Fournier-Desseux A. and Jossinet J., (2005), “Assessment of 1-lead and 2-lead electrode patterns in electrical impedance endotomography” Physiol. Meas. 26, 337–349.

Grimnes S and Martinsen O G, (2007), “Source of error in tetrapolar impedance measurements on biomaterials and other ionic conductors”, J. Phys. D:Appl. Phys, 40, 9-14.

Ivorra A and Aquilo J, “New Five-Electrode Method for Impedance Biomedical Applications”, Centre Nacional de Microlectrónica, Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain

Bani M R, Lux M P, Heusinger K, Wenkel E, Magener A, Schulz-Wendtland R, Beckmann M W, Fasching P A (Jan 2009), “Factors correlating with re-excision after breast-conserving therapy”, European Journal of Surgical Onlcology, 35(1), 32-37.

Brown M L, Lipscomb J, Snyder C (2005), “The burden of illness of cancer: economic cost and quality of life”, Annual Review of Public Health 2001, 22, 91-113; (2004) NIH Cost of Illness Report to the U.S. Congress; (2005); National Health Care Expenditures Projections: (2003-2001).

Sabel, M S, Rogers K, Griffith, K, Jagsi, R, Kleer, C G, Diehl, K A, Breslin, T M, Cimmino, V M, Chang, A E, Newman, L A, (2009), “Residual disease after re-excision lumpectomy for close margins”, Journal of Surgical Oncology, 99(2), 99-103.

Smitt Melanie C, Horst Kate, (2007), “Association of clinical and pathologic variables with lumpectomy surgical margin status after preoperative diagnosis of excisional biopsy of invasive breast cancer”, Annals of Surgical Oncology, 14(3), 1040-1044.

Vordermark D, Lackenbauer A, Wulf J, Guckenberger M, Flentje M, (2007), “Local control in 118 consecutive high-risk breast cancer patients treated with breast-conserving therapy”, Oncology Reports, 18(5), 1333-1339.

Walljee J F, Hu E S, Newman L A, Alderman A K, (2008), “Predictors of re-excision among women undergoing breast-conserving surgery for cancer from reduction surgeries”, Annals of Surgical Oncology, 15(5), pp 1297-303., IOP PUBLISHING, Phys. Med. Biol., 52, pp 2637–2639